Fluoride

Health Risks of Water Fluoridation

Water fluoridation in Europe

Ireland is one of the only countries in Europe to fluoridate it’s water supply (71% of the population is fluoridated, 10% of both Spain and UK fluoridated) and is the most heavily fluoridated country in the World. 98% of Europe either stopped, rejected or banned it.

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Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States)

osteosarcomaMETHODS: We used data from a matched case-control study conducted through 11 hospitals in the United States that included a complete residential history for each patient and type of drinking water (public, private well, bottled) used at each address. Our analysis was limited to cases less than 20 years old. We standardized fluoride exposure estimates based on CDC-recommended target levels that take climate into account. We categorized exposure into three groups (<30%, 30-99%, >99% of target) and used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios.

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Is there a need of extra fluoride in children?

Sunil GuptaThe issues related to fluoridation of water or fortification of toothpaste with compounds of fluorides are controversial. Fluoride is stored mainly in the bones, where it increases the density and changes the internal architecture, makes it osteoporotic and more prone to fractures. Fluoride consumption by human beings increases the general cancer death rate, disrupts the synthesis of collagen and leads to the breakdown of collagen in bone, tendon, muscle, skin, cartilage, lungs, kidney and trachea, causing a disruptive effect on various tissues in the body. It inhibits antibody formation, disturbs immune system and makes the child prone to malignancy. Fluoride has been categorized as a protoplasmic poison and any additional ingestion of fluoride by children is undesirable.

Gupta SK, Gupta RC, Gupta AB., Indian Pediatr. 2009 Sep;46(9):755-9. Is there a need for extra fluoride in children

The prevalence of enamel mottling on incisor teeth in optimal fluoride & low fluoride communities in England

Dental fluorosisThe prevalence of enamel mottling in optimal and low fluoride areas of the West Midlands was studied in March 1989 using the Al-Alousi index and the TF index. A total of 600 children aged 8-10 years, in three groups of 200 each, formed the study group. Significantly more mottling was found in the optimal fluoride area, according to both indices, although the TF index demonstrated the difference more clearly. The social class had no effect on the prevalence of mottling in the optimal fluoride area. 

Hamdan M, Rock WP., Community Dent Health. 1991 Jul;8(2):111-9. The prevalence of enamel mottling on incisor teeth in optimal fluoride and low fluoride communities in England.

New recommendations concerning the fluoride content of toddler toothpaste

toxic toothpaste fluorideConsequences for systemic application of fluoride.

A group of experts from 4 European countries who gathered at a convention at Basel in November 1998, arrived at the recommendation to increase the fluoride (= F) content of toddler tubes of toothpaste from 250 ppm to 500 ppm. It was recommended to make parents brush the children's teeth with a pea-size piece of this toothpaste once a day, starting when the first deciduous teeth were erupting. Routine application of F-tablets would no longer be routinely prescribed, but restricted to individual indications in special high caries risk cases.

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Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease.

flurosisEndemic skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone and joint disease caused by ingesting large amounts of fluoride either through water or rarely from foods of endemic areas. Fluoride is a cumulative toxin which can alter accretion and resorption of bone tissue. It also affects the homeostasis of bone mineral metabolism. The total quantity of ingested fluoride is the single most important factor which determines the clinical course of the disease which is characterized by immobilization of joints of the axial skeleton and of the major joints of the extremities. 

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Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level

thyroid dysfunctionTo assess the roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) level associated with excessive fluoride (F) intake and the impact of dietary Pr, Ca, and F on thyroid function, 144 30-day-old Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of 24 (female:male = 1:1). The six groups were fed (1) a normal control (NC) diet (17.92% Pr, 0.85% Ca = NC group); (2) the NC diet and high F (338 mg NaF [=150 mg F ion]/L in their drinking water = NC+F group); (3) low Pr and low Ca diet (10.01% Pr, 0.24% Ca = LPrLCa group); (4) low Pr and low Ca diet plus high F = LPrLCa+F group; (5) high Pr and low Ca diet plus high F (25.52% Pr, 0.25% Ca = HPrLCa+F group); and (6) low Pr and high Ca diet plus high F (10.60% Pr, 1.93% Ca = LPrHCa+F group).

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Regression analysis of cancer incidence rates and water fluoride in the U.S.A. based on IACR/IARC (WHO) data (1978-1992).

Age-specific and age-standardized rates (ASR) of registered cancers for nine communities in the U.S.A. (21.8 million inhabitants, mainly white) were obtained from IARC data (1978-82, 1983-87, 1988-92). The percentage of people supplied with "optimally" fluoridated drinking water (FD) obtained from the Fluoridation Census 1985, U.S.A. were used for regression analysis of incidence rates of cancers at thirty six sites (ICD-WHO, 1957).

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Fluoride-induced hyperthyroidism as a cause of psychosis among East African immigrants to Scandinavia

hyperthyroidismEast African immigrants to Scandinavia are admitted to mental hospitals far more frequently than native Scandinavians. Most of these patients are admitted for psychosis, commonly ascribed to problems adapting to the new culture. However, psychosis is also known to be associated with hyperthyroidism, and the high frequency of psychosis among East Africans in Scandinavia may at least in part be due to hyperthyroidism rather than cultural problems.

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